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Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO): a new attractive target to decrease cardiovascular risk
  1. Ione Swanepoel1,
  2. April Roberts1,
  3. Chelsea Brauns1,
  4. Devahuti R Chaliha2,
  5. Veronica Papa3,4,
  6. Raymond D Palmer5,
  7. Mauro Vaccarezza6,7
  1. 1School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Bentley, Western Australia, Australia
  2. 2Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute (CHIRI), Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Bentley, Western Australia, Australia
  3. 3Sport Sciences and Wellness, University of Naples Parthenope, Naples, Campania, Italy
  4. 4FAPAB Research Center, Avola, Siracusa, Italy
  5. 5Longevity Experts, Helium-3 Biotech, South Perth, Western Australia, Australia
  6. 6School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia
  7. 7Curtin Medical School, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Bentley, Perth, Western Australia, Australia
  1. Correspondence to Dr. Mauro Vaccarezza, Curtin Medical School, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6102, Australia; mauro.vaccarezza{at}


Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the greatest disease burdens and takes the lives of many each year. There are many risk factors both modifiable and non-modifiable which contribute to the onset and progression of the disease. Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) in recent years has been found to have a correlation with CVD onset. Those with increased levels of the metabolite have a markedly increased risk of future development of cardiometabolic disorders.

This literature review aimed to critique past studies undertaken to find a consensus of the significance of the interrelationship between TMAO and cardiovascular risk. A definite link between TMAO levels and a CVD outcome was found. The majority of the literature stated the relationship with evidence; however, there is still some uncertainty as to why and how the correlation occurs. Further study needs to be done to further dissect and understand the relationship between TMAO and CVD risk.

  • microbiology
  • pathology
  • biophysics
  • adult cardiology
  • coronary heart disease
  • vascular medicine

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  • Contributors The topic was devised by IS, AR and CB under the conceptualisation and supervision of MV. IS, AR, CB and MV undertook the literature searching, created the outline of the article and wrote the draft. MV, DRC, VP and RDP provided feedback on the draft. IS, AR, CB and MV then revised the article. CB undertook final proofreading with further contribution of DRC and RDP. Final review of the manuscript and final version was implemented by MV with contribution of VP. All the authors read and approved the final version of the article for submission.

  • Funding None

  • Competing interests RDP is the chief scientific officer of Longevity Experts, Helium-3 Biotech.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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