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Guidelines for mono, double and triple antithrombotic therapy
  1. Renate C A E van Uden1,2,
  2. Ilse Houtenbos3,
  3. Anita Griffioen-Keijzer3,
  4. Diego A M Odekerken4,
  5. Patricia M L A van den Bemt5,
  6. Matthijs L Becker1,2
  1. 1Hospital Pharmacy, Spaarne Gasthuis, Haarlem, Noord-Holland, Netherlands
  2. 2Pharmacy Foundation of Haarlem Hospitals, Haarlem, Noord-Holland, Netherlands
  3. 3Internal Medicine, Spaarne Gasthuis, Haarlem, Noord-Holland, Netherlands
  4. 4Cardiology, Spaarne Gasthuis Hospital, Haarlem, Noord-Holland, Netherlands
  5. 5Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Universitair Medisch Centrum Groningen, Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands
  1. Correspondence to Dr Matthijs L Becker, Hospital Pharmacy, Spaarne Gasthuis, Haarlem, Noord-Holland, Netherlands; mbecker{at}


Guidelines for antithrombotic therapy are complex, especially if a patient has several indications that require antithrombotic therapy. In general, no patient should receive lifelong double or triple antithrombotic therapy. In this overview, we outline the most common indications for mono, double and triple antithrombotic therapy; the preferred antithrombotic therapy and the recommended duration of therapy. Both antiplatelet therapy and therapeutic anticoagulation therapy with vitamin K antagonists or direct oral anticoagulants were included. European guidelines were used or, if no European guidelines were available, the Dutch guidelines were used.

  • anticoagulation
  • protocols & guidelines

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  • Contributors Each author has substantially contributed to this manuscript. The final manuscript has been approved by all authors.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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