SARS-CoV-2 is a virus that is the cause of a serious life-threatening disease known as COVID-19. It was first noted to have occurred in Wuhan, China in November 2019 and the WHO reported the first case on December 31, 2019. The outbreak was declared a global pandemic on March 11, 2020 and by May 30, 2020, a total of 5 899 866 positive cases were registered including 364 891 deaths. SARS-CoV-2 primarily targets the lung and enters the body through ACE2 receptors. Typical symptoms of COVID-19 include fever, cough, shortness of breath and fatigue, yet some atypical symptoms like loss of smell and taste have also been described. 20% require hospital admission due to severe disease, a third of whom need intensive support. Treatment is primarily supportive, however, prognosis is dismal in those who need invasive ventilation. Trials are ongoing to discover effective vaccines and drugs to combat the disease. Preventive strategies aim at reducing the transmission of disease by contact tracing, washing of hands, use of face masks and government-led lockdown of unnecessary activities to reduce the risk of transmission.
- viral infections
- global health
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Contributors MTA and DW were responsible behind the ideology of this research and the need of this review. MTA was responsible for the search of data. MTA wrote the manuscript, aided by RR. All listed authors contributed to the write-up, corrections, validation and final approval of the manuscript.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests None declared.
Patient consent Not required.
Ethics approval This study acquired the ethics approval of Research Committee of Luton and Dunstable University Hospital, Luton, UK.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; internally peer reviewed.
Search strategy and selection criteria Data for this review were identified by searches of PubMed, MEDLINE and references from articles using search terms ‘severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2’, ‘SARS-CoV-2’, ‘2019-nCoV’ ‘COVID-19’ and ‘coronavirus disease of 2019’. Guidelines, news and unpublished research were also searched for and included when found to be suitable for purposes of this review and deemed to be authentic. No language restrictions were followed and relevant literature in any language including English and Chinese were included.
Availability of data and materials We declare that availability of data and materials is not applicable to this study.
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