The incidence of type 2 diabetes is rapidly rising worldwide leading to an increasing burden of cardiovascular and microvascular complications. The aim of treatment of the condition is to improve quality of life and reduce such complications. To this end, improvement in glucose control remains an important consideration. In recent years, important therapeutic advances have occurred in the management of hyperglycaemia in people with type 2 diabetes. These include the use of dipeptidylpeptidase-4 inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and sodium glucose transporter-2 inhibitors. The latter two classes appear to have some specific beneficial effects on cardiovascular and renal outcomes, independent of their antihyperglycaemic effects. This review aims to outline the current state of diagnosis and management of diabetes for the general physician, with a particular focus on new therapeutic agents for management of glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes.
- diabetic nephropathy & vascular disease
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Contributors JT wrote the main sections on glucose control and older/newer agents. AC and WW contributed sections, referenced, reviewed and revised the manuscript. TAC conceived the idea, wrote and rewrote various sections including the self-assessment questions and is the guarantor.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests None declared.
Patient consent for publication Not required.
Provenance and peer review Commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
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