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A 21-year-old white man presented to the outpatient clinic with painful, discharging red eyes and mild dysuria. He reported a history of unprotected sexual contact 2 weeks earlier to the presentation. Physical examination was normal aside from conjunctivitis and oedema of the eyelids. Investigations showed pyuria but normal complete blood count. Syphilis and HIV screening were negative. The absence of urethral discharge pointed towards a non-gonococcal urethritis1 and the mild conjunctivitis pointed towards Chlamydia as a most likely cause of non-gonococcal urethritis, as other organisms of non-gonococcal urethritis (ie, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Mycoplasma genitalium and Trichomonas vaginalis) are unlikely to cause conjunctivitis. A clinical diagnosis of Chlamydia conjunctivitis and urethritis was made based on the absence …
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