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Emerging spectrum of post-COVID-19 syndrome
  1. Shekhar Kunal1,
  2. Manu Madan2,
  3. Chandrakant Tarke3,
  4. Dinesh Kumar Gautam1,
  5. Jiwan Shriram Kinkar4,
  6. Kashish Gupta5,
  7. Ritu Agarwal6,
  8. Shruti Mittal7,
  9. Shashi Mohan Sharma1
  1. 1 Department of Cardiology, SMS Medical College and Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
  2. 2 Department of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, Delhi, India
  3. 3 Department of Pulmonology, Apollo Hospital, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
  4. 4 Department of Neurology, SMS Medical College and Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
  5. 5 Department of Medicine, SG Diabetes Centre, Delhi, India
  6. 6 Department of Radiodiagnosis, SMS Medical College and Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
  7. 7 Department of Radiodiagnosis, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, India
  1. Correspondence to Dr Shekhar Kunal, Department of Cardiology, SMS Medical College and Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India; shekhar.kunal09{at}


‘Post-COVID-19 syndrome’ refers to symptoms in the convalescent phase following initial COVID-19 infection. This term encompasses a wide array of presentation involving lungs, heart and the neuromuscular system. Pulmonary manifestations include post-COVID-19 fibrosis, which is akin to post acute respiratory distress syndrome fibrosis and may reflect the permanent damage to the lungs following an initial bout of infection. Cardiovascular system is often involved, and the presentation can be in terms of acute coronary syndrome, myocarditis and heart failure. Clinical manifestations are often varied and non-specific, which entails a detailed workup and a multidisciplinary approach. Post-COVID-19 syndrome adds to the overall disease morbidity and leads to a prolonged hospital stay, greater healthcare utilisation and loss of productivity marring the country’s dwindling economy. Thus, it is imperative that post-COVID-19 syndrome be prevented and identified early followed by a prompt treatment.

  • COVID-19
  • thromboembolism
  • myocardial infarction
  • respiratory infections

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  • Contributors SK, CT, DKG, KG, RA and SMS collected the clinical data; SK, MM, JSK, KG and SM reviewed the literature; JSK reviewed the neurological aspects, while SM and RA reviewed the radiology. SK, SMS, CT and MM worked on the concept and are responsible for the genuineness of the data. All the authors have drafted the manuscript and read and approved the final version.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.