Article Text

Download PDFPDF
Snake envenomation-induced acute kidney injury: prognosis and long-term renal outcomes


Background Snake bite continues to be a significant cause of acute kidney injury (AKI) in India. There is paucity of data regarding long-term outcomes of such patients. In this study, we aim to assess the prognosis and long-term renal outcomes of such patients.

Methods We analysed the hospital records of snake envenomation-induced AKI from January 2015 to December 2018. Predictors of in-hospital mortality were assessed. Survivors were advised to visit follow-up clinic to assess their kidney function.

Results There were 769 patients with evidence of envenomation and of them, 159 (20.7%) had AKI. There were 112 (70.4%) males. Mortality occurred in 9.4% of patients. Logistic regression analysis identified shock (OR 51.949, 95% CI 4.297 to 628.072) and thrombocytopenia (OR 27.248, 95% CI 3.276 to 226.609) as predictors of mortality. Forty-three patients attended the follow-up. The mean follow-up duration was 30.4±15.23 months. Adverse renal outcomes (eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 or new-onset hypertension (HTN) or pre-HTN or urine protein creatinine ratio >0.3) occurred in 48.8% of patients. Older age (mean age (years) 53.3 vs 42.8, p=0.004) and longer duration on dialysis (median duration (days) 11.5 vs 5, p=0.024) were significantly associated with adverse renal outcomes.

Conclusions The incidence of AKI in snake envenomation was 20.7%. The presence of shock and thrombocytopenia were associated with mortality. Adverse renal outcomes occurred in 48.8% of patients in the long term.

  • acute renal failure
  • chronic renal failure
  • toxicology

Data availability statement

All data relevant to the study are included in the article.

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.