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Recent advances in the aetiology of recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS)
  1. Zihan Wang1,
  2. Haibo Cao2,
  3. Jianqi Xiong1,
  4. Yilong Lu1,
  5. Yixiao Deng1,
  6. Han Nan1,
  7. Shutian Zheng1,
  8. Hui Ye3,
  9. Zhensheng Cao1
  1. 1 School of Stomatology, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China
  2. 2 Clinical Medicine School, Hebei University of Engineering, Handan, China
  3. 3 Department of Biochemistry, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China
  1. Correspondence to Dr Zhensheng Cao, School of Stomatology, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, China; caozhensheng{at}; Professor Hui Ye; wmcyh{at}


Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is the most common disease of oral mucosa, which almost attacks each individual once in their lifespan. Although plenty of factors have been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of RAS, the aetiology of RAS is still controversial, which might lead to limited clinical therapies in accordance with each RAS patient. This review mainly illustrates recent advances in potential causes associated with RAS in detail. Deeper comprehension of the aetiology of RAS will support doctors and researchers to make a better management of RAS patients and to discover new treatments. The aetiology of RAS is complicated, hence we should take a comprehensive view into its aetiology, with multiple potential factors being considered. Sample collection of RAS patients have greatly limited the progress in the aetiology of RAS. A research model of multiagency cooperation can help achieve perfect sample collection of year-round and multiposition.

  • immunology
  • oral medicine
  • haematology
  • anaemia
  • genetics

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  • Correction notice This article has been corrected since it first published. The provenance and peer review statement has been included.

  • Contributors ZW, HY and ZC conceptualised the topic and supervised the organisation of manuscript preparation. ZW, HC, JX, YL, YD, HN and SZ did the literature search and produced the manuscript draft and all authors were involved with the critical review of the manuscript. All authors approve the final manuscript. ZW submitted the study.

  • Funding This research was funded by Training Programme of National College Students Entrepreneurship (ID: 201910343042X), Zhejiang College Students Innovative Entrepreneurial Training Programme (ID: 2019R413025), Students Project of Wenzhou Medical University (ID: wyx2019101115), National Natural Science Foundation of China (ID: 82071836), Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province, PRC (ID: LY17H060008, LY14H140008), Wenzhou Basic Scientific Research Project (ID: Y2020240), Public Welfare Science and Technology Project of Wenzhou Science and Technology Bureau (ID: Y20160141).

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.