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Symptoms, risk factors, diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infections
  1. Rajanbir Kaur,
  2. Rajinder Kaur
  1. Department of Botanical and Environmental Sciences, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab, India
  1. Correspondence to Dr Rajinder Kaur, Botanical and Environmental Sciences, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, India; rajinder.botenv{at}


Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common microbial infection found in all ages and sexes which involves inflammation of the urinary tract. These infections can range from simple bladder inflammation, that is, cystitis, to severe cases of uroseptic shock. UTI ranks as the number 1 infection that leads to a prescription of antibiotics after a doctor’s visit. These infections are sometimes distressing and even life threatening, and both males (12%) and females (40%) have at least one symptomatic UTI throughout their lives. Diagnostic failures in case of bacterial infections are the main contributing factor in improper use of antibiotics, delay in treatment and low survival rate in septic conditions. So, early diagnosis and appropriate therapy with antibiotics are the most significant requirements for preventing complicated UTI conditions such as urosepsis. This review article summarises the symptoms of the UTIs and the associated risk factors to it. The various conventional and recent diagnostic methods were also discussed in this review, along with treatment therapies with or without antibiotics.

  • urinary tract infections
  • microbiology
  • infectious diseases
  • diagnostic microbiology
  • epidemiology

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  • Contributors The study draft was designed by RajiK. Acquisition of data was done by RajaK. Analysis and interpretation of the data was done by RajiK and RajaK. Both authors contributed in writing, revising the manuscript critically and approving the final manuscript.

  • Funding This study was funded by University Grants Commission (UGC-UPE fellowship).

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.