Background We sought to investigate whether admission hyperglycaemia is associated with complications in patients who had an acute ischaemic stroke (AIS) treated with intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator and, if so, whether complications during hospitalisation modify the effect of hyperglycaemia on 3-month poor outcome after thrombolysis.
Methods Patients who were diagnosed with AIS after thrombolysis between July 2016 and January 2019 were enrolled in this study. Five prespecified complications, including infections, brain oedema, deep vein thrombosis (DVT), haemorrhagic transformation (HT) and gastrointestinal bleeding, were recorded during hospitalisation.
Results Of 388 patients, 143 (36.86%) presented with hyperglycaemia. Patients with hyperglycaemia were more likely to experience one or more complications than patients without hyperglycaemia. After adjustment for potential confounders, hyperglycaemia was associated with brain oedema (OR 2.39; 95% CI 1.08 to 5.30), HT (OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.06 to 4.41), symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhage (sICH) (OR 7.32, 95% CI 2.35 to 22.80) and gastrointestinal bleeding (OR 3.62; 95% CI 1.93 to 6.80), but was not linked to infections (OR 1.48, 95% CI 0.76 to 2.9) and DVT (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.23 to 1.5). Additional adjustment for the complications in the clinical outcome analysis, done to assess these complications as an intermediate in the pathway from admission hyperglycaemia to clinical outcome, did not substantially change the model (all p for interaction >0.05).
Conclusion Hyperglycaemia is an independent predictor of complications following stroke after thrombolysis, especially for brain oedema, gastrointestinal bleeding, HT and sICH. Complications during hospitalisation did not modify the effect of hyperglycaemia on the poor outcome at 3 months in ischaemic stroke.
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