Article Text

Download PDFPDF

Endocrine changes in SARS-CoV-2 patients and lessons from SARS-CoV
  1. Shubham Agarwal1,
  2. Sanjeev Kumar Agarwal2
  1. 1 Department of Internal Medicine, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science Chicago Medical School, North Chicago, Illinois, USA
  2. 2 Department of Cardiology, Rashid Hospital, Dubai, United Arab Emirates
  1. Correspondence to Dr Shubham Agarwal, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science Chicago Medical School, North Chicago IL 60064, Illinois, USA; shubhamagarwaldr{at}


Coronavirus infection outbreaks have occurred frequently in the last two decades and have led to significant mortality. Despite the focus on reducing mortality by preventing the spread of the virus, patients have died due to several other complications of the illness. The understanding of pathological mechanisms and their implications is continuously evolving. A number of symptoms occur in these patients due to the involvement of various endocrine glands. These clinical presentations went largely unnoticed during the first outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2002–2003. A few of these derangements continued during the convalescence phase and sometimes occurred after recovery. Similar pathological and biochemical changes are being reported with the novel coronavirus disease outbreak in 2020. In this review, we focus on these endocrine changes that have been reported in both SARS coronavirus and SARS coronavirus-2. As we battle the pandemic, it becomes imperative to address these underlying endocrine disturbances that are contributing towards or predicting mortality of these patients.

  • general endocrinology
  • thyroid disease
  • adrenal disorders
  • general diabetes

This article is made freely available for use in accordance with BMJ’s website terms and conditions for the duration of the covid-19 pandemic or until otherwise determined by BMJ. You may use, download and print the article for any lawful, non-commercial purpose (including text and data mining) provided that all copyright notices and trade marks are retained.
View Full Text

Statistics from


  • Contributors SKA conceived the idea of the study and SA designed it. Both the authors undertook literature search, carried out data collection, analysis and interpretation. SA drafted the initial manuscript. SKA carried out critical analysis, revision and drafted the final manuscript. Both the authors approve of the final version of the manuscript to be submitted for publication.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Disclaimer The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest that could be perceived as prejudicing the impartiality of the review article reported.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.