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The Swansea 6D model: a diagnostic and conversational framework for supervisors, mentors and doctors in training
  1. Judy McKimm1,
  2. Claire L Vogan1,
  3. Chris Roberts2,
  4. Eleanor Nash3,
  5. Eleanor Hothersall4,5,
  6. Paul Kneath Jones1
  1. 1 Swansea University Medical School, Swansea University, Swansea, Wales, West Glamorgan, UK
  2. 2 Faculty of Medicine, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  3. 3 Lincolnshire GP Training Programme, Health Education England East Midlands, Nottingham, UK
  4. 4 School of Medicine, University of Dundee, Dundee, UK
  5. 5 Department of Public Health, NHS Tayside, Dundee, UK
  1. Correspondence to ProfessorJudyMcKimm, Swansea University Medical School, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP, UK; j.mckimm{at}


Doctors in training are particularly vulnerable to stress and burnout, with the transition into the early parts of training being a period of acute anxiety. Supervisors and mentors have a key role to play in helping trainees make the transition from medical student to practising doctor. This often involves professional conversations, ranging from the relatively routine to difficult issues. The Swansea 6D model has been designed as a guidance tool which provides a simple, memorable framework around which conversations can be structured in terms of identifying meaningful expectations, providing explanations and reframing situations.

  • supervision
  • mentors
  • doctors in training
  • remediation
  • feedback

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  • Contributors JM, CR and PKJ developed the initial concept. This was further developed by JM, CLV and PKJ, then refined by CR, EN and EH. JM and CLV are responsible for the final content as guarantor.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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