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Multiparametric ultrasound in liver diseases: an overview for the practising clinician
  1. Ivica Grgurevic1,2,3,
  2. Ida Tjesic Drinkovic1,2,
  3. Massimo Pinzani4
  1. 1 Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Clinical Nutrition, University Hospital Dubrava, Zagreb, Croatia
  2. 2 Department of Medicine, University Hospital Dubrava, Zagreb, Croatia
  3. 3 Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Zagreb School of Medicine, Zagreb, Croatia
  4. 4 UCL Institute for Liver and Digestive Health, Sheila Sherlock Liver Centre, Royal Free Hospital, London, UK
  1. Correspondence to Dr Ivica Grgurevic, Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Clinical NutritionDepartment of Medicine, University Hospital Dubrava, University of Zagreb School of Medicine and Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, Zagreb 10 000, Croatia; ivica.grgurevic{at}zg.htnet.hr

Abstract

Ultrasound (US) is usually the first and most commonly used tool in the diagnostic algorithm for liver disease. It is widely available, non-invasive and offers a real-time assessment of the liver in several anatomic planes, using different US modalities such as greyscale imaging, Doppler, elastography and contrast-enhanced US. This multiparametric ultrasound (MPUS) provides more information of the examined structures and allows for a faster and more accurate diagnosis, usually at the point of care, thus reducing the requirement for some invasive and more expensive methods. Current data on the MPUS in hepatology are summarised in this review, mostly focused on its use for non-invasive staging of liver fibrosis, detection and classification of portal hypertension and oesophageal varices, prognosis in chronic liver diseases and characterisation of focal liver lesions (FLLs). Based on the available data, we propose practical algorithms for clinical use of MPUS in chronic liver disease and FLL.

  • ultrasonography
  • doppler
  • elasticity imaging techniques
  • Liver Diseases
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Footnotes

  • Contributors IG: conception of the manuscript, acquisition, analysis and interpretation of data, drafting the manuscript, final approval of the version to be published and responsible for the overall content as guarantor. ITD: acquisition and analysis of data, drafting the manuscript and final approval of the version to be published. MP: conception of the manuscript, drafting the manuscript, revising the manuscript critically and final approval of the version to be published.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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