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Sex differences in antihypertensive drug use and blood pressure control

Abstract

Background Hypertension is the most important modifiable cardiovascular risk factor. Epidemiological studies have shown the benefits of lowering blood pressure (BP), but BP control is a major challenge. Furthermore, there are significant sex differences in antihypertensive drug use and BP control. This study examined sex differences in antihypertensive drug use and BP control, with the aim of reducing the complications of hypertension and improving quality of life.

Methods The study was performed in our outpatient hypertension clinic, and included 1529 patients without secondary hypertension or comorbidities. The study, investigated BP control rates and patterns of antihypertensive drug use in male and female. All data were collected using structured questionnaires and patient measurements.

Results The study included 713 males and 816 females in this study. Fewer females had hypertension in the younger age group (16.2% vs 11.6%; p>0.05), but this difference disappeared in middle-aged (47.8% vs 49.9 %; p<0.05) and elderly age groups (36.0% vs 38.5%; p<0.05). BP control rates differed between males and females (35.6% in male, 31.9% in female, p<0.01). There was an overall difference in BP control rates between males and females (35.6% in males, 31.9% in females, p<0.01). In this aged 18–44 years, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) showed the best control rate in males, while calcium channel blockers (CCBs) were least effective (61.5% with ACEIs, 28.6% with CCBs; p<0.05). In this aged 45–64 years, diuretics (DUs) showed the best control rate in females, while CCBs were least effective (47.5% with DUs, 28.3% with CCBs; p<0.05).

Conclusions Sex plays an important role in BP control. In those aged 18–44 years, males using ACEIs showed best control rates. In those aged 45–64 years, females using DUs showed best control rates. Our study provides a basis with the selection of antihypertensive drugs according to sex and age.

  • sex difference
  • antihypertensive medication
  • blood pressure
  • adults
  • drug prescribing pattern
  • outpatient

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