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Case–control study examining the association between hip fracture and zaleplon use in older adults
  1. Shih-Wei Lai1,2,
  2. Kao-Chi Chang-Ou3,
  3. Cheng-Li Lin1,4,
  4. Kuan-Fu Liao3,5
  1. 1 College of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan
  2. 2 Department of Family Medicine, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan
  3. 3 Division of Hepatogastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Taichung Tzu Chi Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan
  4. 4 Management Office for Health Data, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan
  5. 5 College of Medicine, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan
  1. Correspondence to Dr Kuan-Fu Liao, Taichung Tzu Chi Hospital, Tanzih Township, Taiwan; kuanfuliaog{at}

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Z-drugs use was found to be associated with increased risk of hip fracture in older adults.1 Additionally, zolpidem use (incidence rate ratio 2.28, 95% CI 1.61 to 3.23) and zopiclone use (OR 3.56, 95% CI 2.33 to 4.84) were found to have such an association in older adults in Taiwan.2 3 Zaleplon, one of Z-drugs, has not yet been studied in Taiwan. To examine this issue, a population-based case–control study was conducted using the database of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Programme. Subjects aged 65 or more with newly diagnosed hip fracture based on International Classification of Diseases ninth Revision Clinical Modification (ICD-9 code 820) from 2000 to 2013 were selected as the cases with hip fracture. The date of cases being diagnosed with hip fracture was defined as the …

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  • Contributors S-WL and KCCO initiated the draft of the article, revised the article and contributed equally to the article. C-LL and K-FL conducted the data analysis.

  • Funding This study was supported in part by the Ministry of Health and Welfare in Taiwan (MOHW108-TDU-B-212–1 33 004 and China Medical University Hospital in Taiwan (DMR-107–192). These funding agencies did not influence the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish or preparation of the manuscript.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Ethics approval Insurance reimbursement claims data used in this study were available for public access. Patient identification numbers were scrambled to ensure confidentiality. Patient informed consent was not required. This study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of China Medical University and Hospital in Taiwan (CMUH-104-REC2-115).

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; internally peer reviewed.