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“Residents get no… satisfaction” a problem to face during internal medicine rotations: development and psychometric properties of the IMPRINT-15
  1. Luis Antonio Díaz1,
  2. Paola Sepúlveda1,
  3. Eduardo Abbott1,
  4. Eduardo Fuentes-López2,
  5. Luz María Letelier1,
  6. Arnoldo Riquelme2,3,
  7. Andrés Aizman1
  1. 1 Department of Internal Medicine, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile
  2. 2 Department of Health Sciences, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile
  3. 3 Department of Gastroenterology, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile
  1. Correspondence to Dr Andrés Aizman, Department of Internal Medicine, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; andresaizman{at}


Clinical rotations are an essential part of Internal Medicine (IM) residency programmes, where curricular objectives are carried out. To our knowledge, there are no validated instruments to assess IM clinical rotations. Our objective was to develop an instrument for residents to assess the quality of clinical rotations in an IM residency programme, and to test the psychometric properties of the instrument. A mixed methodology was used, including qualitative and quantitative phases. Items were proposed by a group of experts based on previously identified residency needs, followed by a quantitative phase to generate consensus among educators and residents to define which items would be included in the instrument (Delphi panel). After generating the instrument, psychometric tests were performed to assess construct validity (factor analysis) and reliability (Raykov’s reliability coefficient). We obtained a 15-item instrument after two Delphi rounds: Internal Medicine Program Instrument 15-items (IMPRINT-15). Sixty-two residents answered 428 surveys using a Likert scale during 7 months (response rate 98.9%). The median score was 4.3 (IQR 3.9–4.7) (scale from 1 to 5). The factor analysis showed two domains in the clinical rotation assessment: (1) teaching and care activities; (2) evaluation and feedback. The instrument is reliable with Raykov’s reliability coefficient of 0.86. Also, Raykov’s reliability coefficient for the domains were 0.89 and 0.83, respectively. The IMPRINT-15 instrument is a bi-dimensional, valid and reliable questionnaire to evaluate the perceived quality by residents of the IM clinical rotations. Also, it constitutes the first validated instrument in this field worldwide.

  • internal medicine
  • medical education &amp
  • training
  • education &amp
  • training

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  • Contributors AA is responsible for the overall content of the project and the manuscript submitted as a guarantor of the project. LAD had full access to all the data in the study. LAD takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. AA takes the final decision to submit for publication. Study concept and design: LAD, PS, LML, EA, AA. Acquisition of data: LAD, AA. Analysis or interpretation of data: LAD, PS, EF-L, LML, AR, AA. Drafting of the manuscript: LAD, EF-L. Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: LAD, PS, EA, LML, AR, AA. Statistical analysis: LAD, EF-L.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Ethics approval Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Medicine, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.