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UK survey of non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMURx) as a valuable source of general population illicit drug use data
  1. Fu Liang Ng1,2,
  2. Karilynn Rockhill3,
  3. Joshua Black3,
  4. Kevin Patrick May3,
  5. Melanie D Whittington3,
  6. David M Wood1,4,
  7. Paul I Dargan1,4,
  8. Jody L Green3,5
  1. 1 Clinical Toxicology, Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK
  2. 2 Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, William Harvey Research Institute, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK
  3. 3 Research Department, Rocky Mountain Poison and Drug Center, Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver, Colorado, USA
  4. 4 Clinical Toxicology, Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, King’s College London, London, UK
  5. 5 Health Analytics, Inflexxion Inc, Waltham, Massachusetts, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr Fu Liang Ng, Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, William Harvey Research Institute, Queen Mary University of London, London EC1M 6BQ, UK;{at}


Purpose of study The aim of the study is to describe the prevalence of illicit drug use in England and Wales using data from the UK Survey of Non-Medical Use of Prescription Drugs (NMURx) programme and to compare against the well-established Crime Survey England and Wales (CSEW). The rationale is that recreational and illicit drug use is common, but the prevalence is difficult to estimate with personal interviewing methods.

Study design We compared two cross-sectional population surveys (NMURx, n=8903 and CSEW, n=20 685) with data regarding self-reported recreational drug use and demographics. NMURx is an online survey using non-probability sampling methodology with preset demographical quotas based on census data. CSEW surveys drug use via computer-assisted self-interviewing as part of a computer-assisted personal-interviewing crime survey.

Results Cannabis was the most frequently used drug regardless of demographics. Prevalence of drug use for specific substances was generally higher for males, younger ages and students. The relationship between income and drug misuse is less clear. Self-reported prevalence of drug use in the NMURx survey is consistently higher than CSEW (absolute difference 1%–3 % across substances and timescales) and persists after stratification for gender, age, student status and household income.

Conclusions The NMURx survey has a broad reach of participants, and a sampling scheme that achieves external validity, compared with general population demographics. NMURx’s online format allows flexibility in items surveyed and in response to emerging trends. The self-reported drug use in the NMURx cohort is comparable, although slightly higher, than the CSEW estimates.

  • toxicology
  • clinical pharmacology
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  • Contributors FLN, KR, JCB, KPM, MDW, DMW, PID and JLG contributed to planning the study and reviewed and edited the manuscript before submission. FLN and KPM derived data from the CSEW and NMURx databases, respectively. FLN, DMW and PID wrote the manuscript. FLN is responsible as guarantor of the study.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests The RADARS System (KR, JCB, KPM, MDW, JLG) is supported by subscriptions from pharmaceutical manufacturers for surveillance, research and reporting services. RADARS System is the property of Denver Health and Hospital Authority, a political subdivision of the State of Colorado. Denver Health retains exclusive ownership of all data, databases and systems. Subscribers do not participate in data collection or analysis, nor do they have access to the raw data. PID is a member of the UK Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs, the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction Scientific Committee and the Glaxo Smith Kline Global Analgesics Advisory Panel. DMW is an Advisor to the UK Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs and the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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