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Gastrointestinal manifestations of neuroendocrine tumours: their investigation and management
  1. Vandana M Sagar1,
  2. Sheldon C Cooper2,
  3. Jill Johnson3,
  4. Shishir Shetty1,
  5. Tahir Shah1
  1. 1 Department of Liver Medicine, University Hospitals Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2 Department of Gastroenterology, University Hospitals Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK
  3. 3 Department of Dietetics, Therapy Services, University Hospitals Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK
  1. Correspondence to Vandana M Sagar, Department of Liver Medicine, Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham, MindelsohnWay, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TH, UK; drvandanasagar86{at}


The incidence of neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) is on the rise in the UK. Patients with NETs need to be managed by a team of clinical specialties. There are a number of challenging gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations related to NETs that can occur in these patients, but a limited literature base exists to guide clinicians.

Whilst life expectancy can be several years for patients with NETs, the GI symptoms can have a significant impact on their quality of life. It is therefore imperative to be familiar with the common GI manifestations associated with NETs, so symptoms can be appropriately managed with an overall aim of restoring the patient's quality of life.

  • malabsorption
  • nutritional support
  • gastrointestinal tumours

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  • Contributors SCC and TS developed the idea and layout of this review. VMS wrote the first draft of the manuscript. SCC, JJ, SS and TS subsequently revised and edited the final text and submitted manuscript.

  • Funding SS is funded by the Wellcome Trust Intermediate Fellowship (reference is 097162/Z/11/Z). Novartis provided a grant to pay for a research fellow.

  • Competing interests SCC is on the advisory board for Eli-Lilley and Covidien, and has received speaker's fees from Baxter and educational sponsorship for meetings by Calea, Abbvie, Shire and Covidien. Other authors have no completing interests to declare.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; internally peer reviewed.

  • Correction notice This paper has been amended since it was published Online First. Owing to a scripting error, some of the publisher names in the references were replaced with 'BMJ Publishing Group'. This only affected the full text version, not the PDF. We have since corrected these errors and the correct publishers have been inserted into the references.

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