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Teaching M&M rounds skills: enhancing and assessing patient safety competencies using the Ottawa M&M model


Background Postgraduate medical education bodies and national patient safety institutes recommend that trainees develop patient safety competencies such as those for Morbidity and Mortality (M&M) rounds, yet there exists no model for their educational delivery.

Objective We studied the effect of a single educational intervention on emergency medicine residents’ aptitudes in selecting and analysing M&M rounds cases.

Methods In this before-and-after study, participants attended an 1 h educational session based on the previously described Ottawa Morbidity and Mortality Model (OM3). Residents were asked to submit a case suitable for M&M rounds both preintervention and postintervention. A novel M&M rounds case critique tool was developed based on OM3 and used to assign a numerical score to each submitted case. Our primary outcome was an increase in mean scores between phases using the case critique tool. An a priori score increase of 1 was defined as educationally significant. Data were analysed using a paired Student's t test.

Results A total of 19 residents were recruited for our pre-intervention and 15 residents for the post-intervention analysis. Mean M&M rounds case critique scores increased from 5.53 to 8.67 (p<0.01) between phases. Residents reported higher comfort with structured case selection and analysis, with an increase in five-point Likert scale means of 2.32 and 3.69 (p<0.01).

Conclusions We found that residents were more effective at M&M rounds case selection and analysis after our focused 1 h educational intervention. Training programmes should consider an M&M rounds training model to ensure future physicians have these skills for 21st-century practice.


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