Article Text

Download PDFPDF
Hepatocellular carcinoma: modern image-guided therapies
  1. Sapna Puppala,
  2. Rafiuddin Patel,
  3. Ki Sing Yap,
  4. Jai Patel,
  5. Tze Wah,
  6. Andrew Snoddon
  1. Department of Radiology, Leeds Teaching Hospitals, Leeds, UK
  1. Correspondence to Dr Sapna Puppala, Department of Radiology, Leeds Teaching Hospitals, Leeds General Infirmary, Great George Street, Leeds LS1 3EX, UK; puppalasapna{at}


The most common primary malignancy of the liver and the third leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide is hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which presents a major global health problem due to its increasing incidence. Most cases of HCC are secondary to either infection (hepatitis B or C) or cirrhosis (alcohol being the most common cause). Clinical presentation is variable and the tumour can be an incidental finding. Treatment options for HCC and prognosis are dependent on many factors but most importantly tumour size and staging. The last two decades have revolutionised the treatment of HCC using image-guided techniques. The concepts of imaging and image-guided techniques are still young and not well described in standard textbooks and hence an up to date review article is essential. The clinical subspecialities may lack familiarity with image-guided techniques but are responsible for management of these patients before and after the treatment by interventional radiologists. This article reviews current image-guided techniques, evidence and outcomes and provides educational highlights and question and answers. The article provides an overview in a simple understandable manner to enable readers from various levels of practice and training to benefit from and apply in their practice.

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.

Linked Articles