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Infective endocarditis in intravenous drug users: a review article
  1. Thomas Colville,
  2. Vishal Sharma,
  3. Khaled Albouaini
  1. Cardiology Department, Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool, UK
  1. Correspondence to Dr Thomas Colville, Education Centre, Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Prescot St, Liverpool L7 8XP, UK; thomascolville{at}, Thomas.colville{at}


Approximately 10% of infective endocarditis (IE) involves the right side of the heart with the majority of these cases occurring in intravenous drug users. Patients are less likely to present with classical IE signs of a new murmur and peripheral stigmata, are more frequently immunocompromised and often have significant social difficulties. These factors result in both diagnostic and therapeutic challenges in this patient group that are not often seen in other patient populations with IE.

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