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The Leishmaniases are diseases caused by protozoan parasites from more than 20 Leishmania (L.) species (order Kinetoplastida) that are transmitted to humans by the bites of infected female Phlebotomine and Lutzomyia sandflies. There are three main forms of the disease: cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), mucocutaneous leishmaniasis and visceral leishmaniasis or kala-azar.1 It is estimated that 0.7–1.2 million of new CL cases and 0.2–0.4 million of new visceral leishmaniasis cases occur each year worldwide.1 CL is classified into Old and New World Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (NWCL) depending on the geographical region where the infection was acquired. NWCL is commonly caused by the L. mexicana complex and L. Viannia subgenus.
The majority of CL cases occur in Afghanistan, Algeria, Brazil, Colombia, the Islamic Republic of Iran, Pakistan, Peru, Saudi …
Contributors RSR: main author. ASWY: coauthor. LI: histopathology diagnosis and image with legend. ET and DL: review and editing.
Competing interests None.
Patient consent Obtained.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
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