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Prevention of exercise-related injuries and adverse events in patients with type 2 diabetes
  1. Romeu Mendes1,
  2. Nelson Sousa1,
  3. Victor Machado Reis1,
  4. José Luís Themudo-Barata2
  1. 1Research Center in Sports, Health Sciences and Human Development, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real, Portugal
  2. 2University of Beira Interior, Cova da Beira Hospital Centre, Covilhã, Portugal
  1. Correspondence to Dr Romeu Mendes, Centro de Investigação em Desporto, Saúde e Desenvolvimento Humano, Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Edificio Ciências do Desporto, Apartado 1013, Vila Real 5000-801, Portugal; rmendes{at}


Physical activity is widely recommended as an essential non-pharmacological therapeutic strategy to the prevention and control of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk. Microvascular and macrovascular complications associated with the natural progression of the disease and typical age and anthropometric profile of individuals with type 2 diabetes may expose these patients to an increased risk of injury and acute adverse events during exercise. These injuries and adverse events can lead to fear of new injury and consequent physical inactivity. Preventative measures are essential to reduce risk, increase safety and avoid the occurrence of exercise-related injuries in people with type 2 diabetes. This population can exercise safely if certain precautions are taken and if exercise is adapted to complications and contraindications of each individual. Conditions such as diabetic foot, diabetic retinopathy, diabetic nephropathy, diabetic autonomic neuropathy, cardiovascular risk factors, musculoskeletal disorders, hypoglycaemia, hyperglycaemia, dehydration and interactions between medication and exercise should be taken into consideration when prescribing exercise.

  • Sports Medicine
  • Public Health

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