Knowledge of the immunological events necessary to control hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has accelerated in recent years, but their translation towards therapeutic strategies able to achieve a durable HBV suppression has been challenging. The scenario of how HBV deals with the host immunity is presented and used to discuss how the immune response can be harnessed to potentially achieve infection control.
- hepatitis C
- hepatitis B
- Helicobacter pylori
- acid-related diseases
- non-ulcer dyspepsia
- genetic polymorphisms
- gastric neoplasia
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This is a reprint of a paper that first appeared in the GUT 2012, Volume 61, pages 1754–1764.
Funding Fondazione Cassa di Risparmio di Parma, Italy, by an FIRB grant from the Italian Ministry of the University and Research, Protocol RBAP10TPXK and by a programme grant of the Agency of Science Technology and Research (A*STAR), Singapore.
Competing interests None.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
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