Although statins significantly decrease the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), residual CVD risk remains high. This may partly be due to uncorrected atherogenic dyslipidaemia. The driving force behind atherogenic dyslipidaemia is hypertriglyceridaemia, which results from hepatic oversecretion and/or hypocatabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, and is typical of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Persistent atherogenic dyslipidaemia in patients treated with a statin according to low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol goals may be corrected with niacin, fibrates or n–3 fatty acids. Clinical trial evidence to inform best practice is limited, but new data support adding fenofibrate to a statin. A consistent feature of fibrate clinical trials is the specific benefit of these agents in dyslipidaemic patients and the improvement in diabetic retinopathy with fenofibrate. Ongoing clinical trials may provide good evidence for adding niacin to a statin. Low-dose n–3 fatty acids could be used routinely after a myocardial infarction, but the value of higher doses of n-3 fatty acids in reducing CVD risk remains to be demonstrated.
- residual risk
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This is a reprint of a paper that first appeared in Heart, March 2011, Volume 97, pages 350–356.
Competing interests GFW has received honoraria for educational activities and scientific advisory boards from Pfizer, AstraZeneca, Merck-Schering Plough, Abbott, Sanofi-Aventis, Glaxo-Welcome, Novartis and Genfit.
Provenance and peer review Commissioned; externally peer reviewed.