Article Text

Download PDFPDF
Republished review: Ocular manifestations of the antiphospholipid syndrome
  1. Virginia Miraldi Utz1,
  2. Johnny Tang1,2
  1. 1Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Case Western Reserve University and University Hospitals Eye Institute, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
  2. 2Research Service and Retina Service, Louis Stokes Cleveland VA Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr Johnny Tang, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, 11100 Euclid Ave, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA; johnny.tang{at}


Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disease characterised by a heterogenous group of antibodies directed against negatively charged phospholipids including antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL), anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL) and β-2 glycoprotein I (aβ-2-GP1). The major features of this disorder include arterial and venous thrombosis and recurrent fetal loss. The vasculature of the eye is frequently involved and may be the presenting manifestation. A diagnosis of APS should be considered in a young patients without traditional thromboembolic risk factors presenting with ocular vaso-occlusive disease. Management of these patients involves a team-approach with a haematologist/oncologist or rheumatologist to manage the coagulation status of these patients to prevent further systemic vascular occlusions.

  • Antiphospholipid syndrome
  • ocular
  • vaso-occlusive retinopathy
  • antiphospholipid antibodies
  • anti-cardiolipin antibodies
  • inflammation

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.


  • This is a reprint of a paper that first appeared in Br J Ophthalmol, April 2011, Volume 95, pages 454–459.

  • Funding This work was supported in part from funding from the Veterans Affairs Career Development (CDA2) Award.

  • Competing interests None.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.