Testis cancer is an increasing problem, especially in northern European male populations. However, survival has improved dramatically over one generation. Environmental factors may have a role in the aetiology with high oestrogen concentrations implicated. Testis cancer is subdivided between seminoma and non-seminoma. At presentation, a testicular lump is the most common finding and radical inguinal orchidectomy is recommended for most. Further multidisciplinary management is determined by histological subtype and stage and involves chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery, with many patients only undergoing surveillance. There is increasing emphasis on reducing toxicity of treatments in long term survivors. Treatment refractory testis cancer remains a significant challenge.
- testis cancer
- long-term toxicity
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