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Management of end stage cardiac failure
  1. Miriam J Johnson


    Optimum heart failure medication and an increasing array of interventions have had an enormous effect on morbidity and mortality over the past 10 years. However, patients with end stage disease can still be highly symptomatic. Moreover, such patients are disadvantaged compared with patients with malignant disease. They are less likely to have an understanding of their illness or have access to supportive care. They are also less likely to have the opportunity to plan for care with regard to death and dying. There is increasing demand that the multi-professional clinical team gain good communication and supportive care skills, and that appropriate access to specialist palliative care services is available.

    • ACE-I, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors
    • AII-I, angiotensin II inhibitors
    • COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    • GSF, Gold Standards Framework
    • ICD, implantable cardioverter-defibrillator
    • SPC, specialist palliative care
    • SSRIs, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
    • TENS, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation

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    • Competing interests: None declared