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Importance of red patches diagnosed in cystoscopy for haematuria and lower urinary tract symptoms
  1. Herman Fernando,
  2. Sreenivasa S Thota,
  3. Glyn Burtt,
  4. Nicholas Waterfall,
  5. Imtiaz Husain
  1. Department of Urology, Bedford Hospital NHS Trust, Bedford, UK
  1. Correspondence to:
 Mr H Fernando
 Department of Urology, University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff CF14 4XW, UK; herman.fernando{at}


Background: Biopsy of the red patches in the bladder, when found at cystoscopy, is routinely performed in urological practice. This is done to establish the sinister diagnosis of carcinoma-in-situ among other causes.

Objective: To analyse the pathology of the red patches and to determine if routine biopsy of these patches is warranted.

Patients and methods: This was a retrospective study conducted over a period of 36 months, in which 50 patients were identified, who underwent biopsies of their red patches. All patients with a history of bladder carcinoma and obvious bladder tumours were excluded from this study.

Results: The mean age of the patients was 60.8 years. 25 patients had cystoscopy for lower urinary tract symptoms, 21 for haematuria and 4 for recurrent urinary tract infection. Carcinoma in situ was found in 4 (8%) patients, of whom only 2 had positive urine cytology.

Conclusion: It is prudent to perform a biopsy of all incidentally diagnosed red patches because of a major yield rate of carcinoma in situ. This procedure also picks up other important pathologies, which help in further management.

  • CIS, carcinoma in situ
  • LUTS, lower urinary tract symptoms
  • CIS
  • LUTS
  • red patches

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  • Competing interests: None.