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Cystine calculi: challenging group of stones
  1. Kamran Ahmed,
  2. Prokar Dasgupta,
  3. Mohammad Shamim Khan
  1. Department of Urology, Guy’s Hospital, Guy’s and St Thomas’ and GKT School of Medicine, London, UK
  1. Correspondence to:
 K Ahmed
 Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS trust, 5 Boland House Guy’s Hospital, St Thomas Street, London SE1 9RT, UK; kahmed198{at}


Cystinuria is an autosomal recessive disorder in renal tubular and intestinal transport of dibasic amino acids, which results in increased urinary excretion of cystine, ornithine, lysine and arginine. It affects 1 in 20 000 people and is caused by a defect in the rBAT gene on chromosome 2. Development of urinary tract cystine calculi is the only clinical manifestation of this disease. Owing to recurrent episodes of stone formation, these patients require a multi-modal approach to management. The role of medical management and minimally invasive surgery was reviewed for the treatment of cystinuria.

  • ESWL, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy
  • PCNL, percutaneous nephrolithotomy

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  • Competing interests: None declared.

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