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Generalised convulsive status epilepticus: an overview
  1. R Nandhagopal
  1. Correspondence to:
 R Nandhagopal
 Department of Neurology, Sri Venkateswara Institute of Medical Sciences, Tirupati 517507, Andhra Pradesh, India; rnandagopal{at}


Generalised convulsive status epilepticus is one of the most common emergencies encountered in clinical practice. This review discusses the recent understanding of this life-threatening condition with reference to the definition, pathophysiology, evaluation, complications, refractory status and prognosis. Besides epilepsy, other neurological and medical illnesses could be associated with status epilepticus. The goals of management and pharmacological approach are outlined, considering the available evidence. Prompt recognition and timely intervention, including pre-hospital treatment, are therapeutically beneficial. Refractory status should be managed in intensive care units under close monitoring. More evidence is needed for evolving the optimal treatment. A suitable treatment protocol would guide in avoiding the pitfalls at various points along the management pathway.

  • EEG, electroencephalographic
  • GABA, γ-amino butyric acid
  • status epilepticus
  • electroencephalographic monitoring
  • anticonvulsants
  • refractory status
  • complications

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  • Competing interest: None.

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