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Clinical outcome of patients with Helicobacter pylori infection: the bug, the host, or the environment?
  1. S N Sgouros1,
  2. C Bergele2
  1. 1Department of Gastroenterology, Athens Naval and Veterans Hospital, Athens, Greece
  2. 22nd Department of Gastroenterology, “Evangelismos” General Hospital, Athens, Greece
  1. Correspondence to:
 Dr S N Sgouros
 Nafpaktias 5, Agia Paraskevi, 15341, Athens, Greece; spisgon{at}


It is well established that only a minority of patients with Helicobacter pylori infection develop severe inflammation leading to peptic ulcer or gastric cancer. Recent evidence suggests that the virulence factors of the organism do not seem crucial in the progression of inflammation towards a more severe disease. It seems probable that other host derived and environmental factors are more significant in determining clinical outcome but additional studies are needed to clarify the underlying mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of infection.

  • MALT, mucosa associated lymphoid tissue
  • IL, interleukin
  • Hsp, heat shock protein
  • LPS, lipopolysaccharides
  • Hp-NAP, neutrophil activating protein of H pylori
  • cagA, cytotoxin associated gene A
  • Helicobacter pylori
  • gastritis
  • gastric cancer
  • MALT lymphoma
  • peptic ulcer

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  • Funding: none.

  • Competing interests: none declared.