Figure 1

Figure 1

 Polymorphonuclear cell phagocytic activity before and after consumption of L rhamnosus HN001 in healthy elderly subjects (n = 13; five males, eight females; age 65–85 years). Subjects consumed low fat, low lactose milk (200 ml twice/day) as a base diet during the run-in stage for three weeks, followed by milk supplemented with L rhamnosus (5×10 cfu daily) for three weeks (intervention stage), before returning to non-supplemented low fat, low lactose milk for the final three weeks. Data are mean (SEM); *significantly higher response than preceding time points (p<0.001; repeat measure analysis of variance, Dunnett’s post hoc test for significance). Adapted from Gill et al.78