Drug abuse has been controversially linked to polyarteritis nodosa. A 28-year-old man with a history of drug abuse with inhaled heroin presented with an enigmatic illness consisting of refractory fever, bilateral pleural effusions, migratory polyarthritis, and a leukaemoid reaction. An abdominal angiography confirmed the diagnosis of polyarteritis nodosa, and treatment with both prednisone and cyclophosphamide resulted in significant clinical and laboratory improvement.
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