A case of non-secretory multiple myeloma presenting as primary plasma cell leukaemia in a 65 year old woman is presented. Bone pain was the initial clinical manifestation. Laboratory analysis showed 20% of circulating immature plasma cells. Despite the presence of osteolytic lesions, no M-component could be demonstrated in serum protein electrophoresis, and serum and urine immunoelectrophoresis. Bone marrow aspirate demonstrated an 83% infiltration of plasma cells showing various degrees of immaturity. Immunofluorescence with monoclonal antisera demonstrated intracytoplasmic kappa light chains in a high percentage of plasma cells. Immature plasma cells without cellular capacity to synthesize and excrete complete immunoglobulins could be more aggressive, leading to an initial leukaemic process. Previous work regarding possible pathogenetic mechanisms, clinical and laboratory features, and response to treatment of this extremely rare association are reviewed.
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