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Adverse effects of captopril in hospital outpatients with hypertension.
  1. T. Walley,
  2. P. Winstanley,
  3. D. Roberts,
  4. M. Grimmer,
  5. M. Orme,
  6. A. Breckenridge
  1. Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Liverpool, UK.


    Hypertensive patients prescribed captopril while attending a hospital hypertension clinic were studied, to identify the benefits of the drug, its adverse effects and factors predisposing to them. One hundred and eighty two patients were followed for a mean of 18 months; 24 received captopril alone, and 158 combinations of captopril and other antihypertensive drugs, especially loop diuretics (91/158), or thiazide diuretics (57/158), or other vasodilators (57/158). The mean final dose of captopril was 67 mg/day. Blood pressure (BP) was effectively controlled in 73% of patients (mean fall in systolic BP 29 mmHg, CI 24 to 34, P less than or equal to 0.001; mean fall in diastolic BP 18 mmHg, CI 16 to 20, P less than or equal to 0.001). Blood urea and creatinine rose slightly in all patients (urea by 0.9 mmol/l [13%], CI 0.5-1.3, P less than or equal to 0.001 and creatinine by 9 mumols/l [8%], CI 4-13, P less than or equal to 0.001). Twenty six patients were withdrawn from captopril therapy: 6 because of poor control of their blood pressure, two because it was no longer necessary and 12 (7.7%) because of extrarenal adverse effects--10 for rashes, one each for gastric upset and impotence. Captopril was withdrawn in a further 6 patients, because of deteriorating renal function. Factors discriminating those at risk of renal dysfunction were high doses of captopril, concomitant high dose diuretic therapy and undiagnosed renovascular disease.

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