A 21-year-old man presented with a 16-year history of recurrent pyrexial episodes and a 5-year history of gynaecomastia. Blood and urinary oestrogen levels were elevated and a mass was found in the upper pole of a retractile right testis. After orchidectomy, oestrogen levels fell, gynaecomastia regressed and the pyrexial episodes ceased. Histological examination of the right testis showed a benign Leydig cell tumour in the upper pole and a germinal cell carcinoma in situ in the remaining part of the testis. Thus a potentially lethal condition was detected at an early pre-malignant phase by virtue of a benign, endocrinologically active tumour. This would seem to be the first report of the co-existence of a Leydig cell tumour and germ cell carcinoma in the same testis.
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