Cow's milk differs from human milk in a number of important ways, and manufactures of dried milk preparations for infants have used various methods to make the composition of the diluted product more like that of human milk. The first was to add lactose, or to recommend the mother to add sucrose. This not only increased the carbohydrate, but also 'diluted' the protein and inorganic constituents which are more concentrated in cow's than in human milk. The second was to replace all or part of the cow's milk fat with animal and vegetable fats, and so make the fatty acid composition more like that of human milk fat. In particular the proportion of linoleic acid was increased and that of stearic acid decreased, and this made the fat more easily digested and absorbed by the young infant. The third modification of cow's milk has been more fundamental. Its aim has been to make a product containing less sodium and phosphorus than cow's milk and with a higher lactalbumin: casein ratio. Whey, which contains lactalbumin but not casein, is used as the starting material. This is dialysed to remove soluble inorganic constituents. Some skimmed milk is then added to supply casein and some minerals, and the composition is adjusted as required with further minerals and vitamins. Lactose is added and a mixture of animal and vegetable fats. Dried milks on sale in Britain contain added vitamins A,D, and C and also iron. Some have added copper and zinc.
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