Table 1

Signs and symptoms of heart failure classified by sensitivity and specificity10

Sign/symptomSensitivity (%)Specificity (%)LR (+)LR (−)
History of myocardial infarction60864.40.45
PND41842.60.70
Orthopnoea50772.20.65
Oedema51762.10.64
Dyspnoea on exertion84341.30.48
S31399110.88
Hepatojugular reflux24966.40.79
JVD39925.10.66
Lower extremity oedema50782.80.51
Chest X-ray findings of pulmonary congestion5496120.48
ECG findings of atrial fibrillation26933.80.79
BNP ≥250 pg/mL89814.60.14
  • BNP, B-type natriuretic peptide; JVD, jugular venous distension; PND, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnoea.