Table 2

Modes of clinical presentations secondary to stone spillage

Infective
    Local
        Liver abscess12
        Subhepatic abscess13,14
        Retrohepatic abscess15
        Intra-abdominal abscess8,16
    Distant
        Retroperitoneal abscess17
        Loin abscess18
        Pelvic abscess19
Cutaneous complications
    Sinus formation20
    Port site infections21
    Granuloma formation22
    Colocutaneous fistula23
Mechanical
    Intestinal obstruction24
    Lodgement in distant hernial sacs25
    Dyspareunia, tenesmus (pelvic migration)26,27
Migration to other systems
    Chest: empyema, cholelithoptysis28,29
    Urinary tract: excretion, haematuria30,31
Systemic
    Septicaemia32