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Common toxidromes in movement disorder neurology
  1. N Malek1,
  2. M R Baker2,3,4
  1. 1Department of Neurology, Ipswich Hospital NHS Trust, Ipswich, UK
  2. 2Department of Neurology, Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, UK
  3. 3Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle -upon-Tyne, UK
  4. 4Institute of Neuroscience, The Medical School, Newcastle University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, UK
  1. Correspondence to Dr Naveed Malek, Ipswich Hospital NHS Trust, Ipswich IP4 5PD, UK; nmalek{at}


Background Physicians can come across patients who are exposed to certain prescription drugs or toxins that can result in adverse effects and complications which have high rates of morbidity and mortality.

Objective To summarise the key clinical features and management of the common movement disorder toxidromes relevant to physicians (with an interest in neurology).

Methods We searched PUBMED from 1946 to 2016 for papers relating to movement toxidromes and their treatment. The findings from those studies were then summarised and are presented here.

Results The key features of 6 of the common movement disorder toxidromes and their treatment are tabulated and highlighted. The management of toxidromes with the highest mortality like neuroleptic malignant syndrome and serotonin syndrome are discussed in detail.

Conclusion There are several toxidromes that have the potential to become a serious life-threatening emergency if there is a delay in recognition of key clinical features and instituting the appropriate treatment at the earliest is crucial.

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  • Contributors Both authors contributed equally to the paper.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • *** are important references.

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