An estimated 5.1 million Americans have chronic heart failure and this is expected to increase 25% by 2030. Heart failure is a clinical syndrome that evolves from either functional or structural changes to the ventricles that lead to filling or ejection abnormalities. Thus far, pharmacotherapy has been show to be beneficial in patients only with reduced ejection fraction; however, new therapies have been developed in hopes of reducing the burden of heart failure. In this review, we will discuss current pharmacotherapies recommended in American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines, the evidence behind these recommendations as well as new and emerging therapies that have been developed.
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Contributors LR and BA determined structure and content of the paper, LR wrote the paper, BA aided with editing and revising the paper.
Competing interests None declared.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.