Objective To compare vaginal culture results between prepubertal girls with and without vulvovaginitis, and obtain an overview of the most commonly encountered microbes.
Design Prospective descriptive study.
Setting Outpatient clinic of Vilnius University Hospital Santariskiu Klinikos during September 2011–December 2012.
Patients 115 prepubertal girls with vulvovaginitis symptoms and additionally 20 age-matched asymptomatic girls.
Methods Each girl had a vaginal smear carried out using a sterile swab from the introitus or lower third of the vagina. All samples were referred to the microbiology laboratory where standard microbiological diagnostic procedures were performed.
Results Positive microbiological findings were seen in all 115 (100%) symptomatic girls and in 12 (60%) control group girls (p<0.001). Pathogenic bacteria were found only in symptomatic girls. Statistically significant differences in bacteria culture results (pure or mixed) and growth of isolated bacteria colonies between patients versus healthy girls were found (p<0.05). The dominant bacteria in the target group, accounting for 66% of all isolated microbes, were Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus coagulase negative, Streptococcus α haemolyticus and A group Streptococcus β haemolyticus. The bacteria of faecal origin were isolated from 61 (53%) girls with vulvovaginitis and from 5 (25%) girls without vaginal inflammation (p<0.05). Instances of Candida species were extremely rare (2.6%).
Conclusions Positive microbiological findings, mixed bacteria cultures and a high growth of bacteria colonies are found significantly more often in girls with vulvovaginitis. The main causative premenarchal vulvovaginitis agents are faecal in origin.