Aim The authors evaluated the prevalence and effect of the various tobacco use modalities among patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and compared them with non-tobacco and ex-tobacco users.
Methods An analysis of the 2nd Gulf Registry of Acute Coronary Events conducted between October 2008 and June 2009 and which included 7930 consecutive patients hospitalised with ACS was made. Patients initially were divided into non-tobacco users, ex-tobacco users and current tobacco users. Subanalysis according to the tobacco modality used was subsequently made: cigarette, waterpipe or smokeless tobacco users.
Results Overall, 2834 (36%) patients were current tobacco users, 306 (3.9%) patients were waterpipe smokers and 240 patients (3%) were oral tobacco users. When compared with non-tobacco and ex-tobacco users, overall current tobacco users were younger, more likely to be male subjects and less likely to have diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidaemia. Mortality rate (p=0.001) and overall cardiovascular events (p=0.001) were lower among current tobacco users when compared with the other two groups. After adjustment for baseline variables, tobacco use was not an independent predictor of adverse events. Subset analysis demonstrates oral tobacco users and waterpipe smokers were older and more likely to be women when compared with cigarette smokers. Among the various tobacco groups, inhospital mortality rates were significantly higher among the waterpipe smokers when compared with the other two groups.
Conclusions Clinical characteristics and outcomes of ACS patients depend on the tobacco modality used. Further studies are required to evaluate the impact of emerging tobacco use modalities on patients with coronary artery disease.
- Acute coronary syndrome
- ST-elevation myocardial infarction
- non-ST elevation myocardial infarction
- cigarette smoking
- waterpipe smoking
- smokeless tobacco
- adult cardiology
- coronary heart disease
- myocardial infarction
- ischaemic heart disease
- public health
- anaesthesia in cardiology
- diabetes and endocrinology
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