Sudden cardiac death among competitive adult athletes: a review
- 1Faculty of Medical Sciences, Newcastle University Medical School, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
- 2Cardiothoracic Centre, Freeman Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
- 3Institute of Cellular Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Newcastle University and Cardiothoracic Centre, Freeman Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
- Correspondence to Dr Vijay Kunadian, Institute of Cellular Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Newcastle University, 3rd Floor William Leech Building, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4HH, UK;
Contributors AP prepared the manuscript. Critical review and editing were performed by VK and JPB.
- Received 14 June 2011
- Accepted 12 January 2012
- Published Online First 23 February 2012
Sudden cardiac death is the leading cause of mortality among young athletes with an incidence of 1–2 per 100 000 athletes per annum. It is described as ‘an event that is non-traumatic, non-violent, unexpected, and resulting from sudden cardiac arrest within six hours of previously witnessed normal health’. Most predisposed athletes have no symptoms and there is no warning for the impending tragic event. The majority of cases are caused by an underlying structural cardiac abnormality, most commonly hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. More recently, the understanding of non-structural causes such as long QT syndrome and Brugada syndrome has grown and diagnostic criteria have been developed. This review presents the known aetiologies of sudden cardiac death among athletes and outlines their identification and management including implications for future sporting participation as laid out in the consensus documents produced by the European Society of Cardiology and the 36th Bethesda Conference.
- Sudden cardiac death
- adult cardiology
- pacing and electrophysiology
- neuromuscular disease
- coronary heart disease
- coronary intervention
Competing interests None.
Ethics approval Review article.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.