Xanthelasma palpebrarum: a marker of premature atherosclerosis (risk of atherosclerosis in xanthelasma)
- 1Department of Dermatology and STD, University College of Medical Sciences and GTB Hospital, University of Delhi, India
- 2Department of Radiology, University College of Medical Sciences and GTB Hospital, University of Delhi, India
- 3Department of Biochemistry, University College of Medical Sciences and GTB Hospital, University of Delhi, India
- 4Department of Medicine, University College of Medical Sciences and GTB Hospital, University of Delhi, India
- Correspondence to Dr Deepika Pandhi, B-1 /1101, Vasant Kunj, Delhi-110070, India;
Contributors All authors contributed to the conception and design, analysis and interpretation of data, drafting the article, revising it critically for important intellectual content, and final approval of the version to be published. DP is responsible for the content of the manuscript.
- Received 13 September 2011
- Accepted 8 January 2012
- Published Online First 23 February 2012
Purpose To evaluate the association between xanthelasma palpebrarum (XP) and atherosclerosis by the measurement of carotid intima media thickness (CIMT). In addition, the concurrent association between metabolic syndrome, dyslipidaemia and dyslipoproteinaemia was also assessed.
Study design A cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2008 to April 2009 involving 40 patients of XP and an equal number of age, sex and body mass index matched controls. All study subjects underwent CIMT estimation by ultrasonography and were evaluated for metabolic syndrome (obesity, blood pressure, blood glucose, serum lipid profile), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, apolipoprotein A1 and apolipoprotein B.
Results The mean CIMT was significantly higher in XP patients as compared with controls. However, there was no correlation with the extent or the duration of the XP lesions. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was similar in both groups while non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was more frequent in XP patients as compared with controls (p=0.001). The mean serum cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels were similar in the two groups. However, there was significant increase in the mean pro-atherogenic apolipoprotein B and decrease in the anti-atherogenic apolipoprotein A1 levels in XP patients.
Conclusions Alteration in apolipoprotein levels (A1 and B) in XP patients may predispose to cutaneous and systemic deposition of lipids, including atherosclerosis. Therefore, XP patients irrespective of their lesion size or serum lipid levels should be screened using CIMT for detection of subclinical atherosclerosis.
- Xanthelasma palpebrarum
- carotid atherosclerosis
- apolipoprotein A
- apolipoprotein B
- metabolic syndrome X
Funding This study was supported by a nominal postgraduate thesis grant received from the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR). ICMR played no role in the study design; collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report or in the decision to submit the paper for publication.
Competing interests None.
Patient consent Obtained.
Ethics approval Ethics approval was provided by the institutional research ethics committee of the University College of Medical Sciences.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.