Article Text

Cardiac resynchronisation therapy: what a hospital practitioner needs to know?
  1. Khaled Albouaini,
  2. Amr Alkarmi,
  3. David Justin Wright
  1. Liverpool Heart and Chest Hospital, Liverpool, UK
  1. Correspondence to Dr Khaled Albouaini, Liverpool Heart and Chest Hospital, Thomas Drive, Liverpool L14 3PE, UK; albouaini{at}


The incidence and prevalence of heart failure are rapidly rising. Despite the improvement in pharmacologic treatment, many patients have severe persistent symptoms, and their prognosis remains poor. One of the most recent advances in heart failure management is the concept of cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT). This therapy aims to pace the right and left ventricles synchronously to contract simultaneously and therefore enhances cardiac output. Clinical trials on CRT have demonstrated both morbidity and mortality benefits. This article reviews the evidence for CRT, the current indications, and important information relevant to the clinician treating patients with heart failure. It also highlights some of the current controversies in this field as well as the need for future research.

  • cardiac resynchronisation therapy
  • biventricular pacing
  • heart failure
  • adult cardiology
  • echocardiography
  • pacing & electrophysiology

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  • Competing interests Dr D J Wright has given educational lectures on behalf of Medtronic and Boston Scientific.

  • Patient consent Obtained.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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