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Testis cancer
  1. Omar Khan,
  2. Andrew Protheroe
  1. Cancer Research UK, Medical Oncology Unit, Churchill Hospital, Oxford, UK
  1. Dr Omar Khan, Cancer Research UK, Medical Oncology Unit, Churchill Hospital, Oxford OX3 7LJ, UK; omar.khan{at}cancer.org.uk

Abstract

Testis cancer is an increasing problem, especially in northern European male populations. However, survival has improved dramatically over one generation. Environmental factors may have a role in the aetiology with high oestrogen concentrations implicated. Testis cancer is subdivided between seminoma and non-seminoma. At presentation, a testicular lump is the most common finding and radical inguinal orchidectomy is recommended for most. Further multidisciplinary management is determined by histological subtype and stage and involves chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery, with many patients only undergoing surveillance. There is increasing emphasis on reducing toxicity of treatments in long term survivors. Treatment refractory testis cancer remains a significant challenge.

  • testis cancer
  • epidemiology
  • aetiology
  • treatment
  • long-term toxicity

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Footnotes

  • Competing interest statements: None declared

  • Abbreviations:
    AFP
    α-fetoprotein, AUC, area under the concentration × time curve
    β-HCG
    β-human chorionic gonadotrophin
    BEP
    bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin
    CT
    computed tomography
    EORTC
    European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer
    EP
    etoposide and cisplatin
    GCT
    germ cell tumour
    IGCCG
    International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group
    ITGCN
    intratubular germ cell neoplasia
    LDH
    lactate dehydrogenase
    MRC
    Medical Research Council
    NSGCT
    non-seminomatous germ cell tumour
    PET
    positron emission tomography
    RPLND
    primary retroperitoneal lymph node dissection
    SMR
    standardised mortality ratio
    VIP
    vinblastine, etoposide and cisplatin

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