Acute heart failure occurs in children following the operative correction of a congenital anomaly, as an acute change in a child with a congenital anomaly, or in a structurally normal heart with acute myocarditis. Acute heart failure in children justifies aggressive treatment because of the high potential for complete recovery. The options for providing mechanical support to the failing heart in a child include extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, left ventricular assist devices and the use of the intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP). The principles of intra-aortic balloon pump usage are described, and the literature regarding the indications and outcome of its use in children is reviewed.
- ECMO, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation
- IABP, intra-aortic balloon pump
- VAD, ventricular assist devices
- circulatory assistance, temporary
- Congenital heart disease (CHD)
- postoperative care