Children are important in the epidemiology of tuberculosis as a marker of recent disease transmission and a reservoir for the future. Once infected they have a higher risk of progressing to tuberculous disease. Chest radiography and tuberculin testing with or without tissue for culture are still the standard tools for confirming the diagnosis once this is considered. Well researched treatment protocols are available but multidrug resistant tuberculosis and coexistent HIV are a challenge. Ensuring compliance with treatment is a major concern. Controversy still surrounds the place of BCG. Advances in the molecular genetics of tuberculosis hold out the possibility of better vaccines.
- childhood tuberculosis
- DOT, directly observed therapy
- TU, tuberculin unit
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